Nelson Mandela : Long Walk to Freedom (CBSE) Short Question and Answers class 10

 Nelson Mandela : Long Walk to Freedom

Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone? 
Ans. The ceremonies took place in the sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria. In India, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid and the Parliament House are some of the public buildings made of sandstone.

Q.2. Can you say how 10 May is an 'autumn day' in South Africa?
Ans. The paragraph mentions that it was a lovely autumn day. Moreover, as South Africa is in the
southern hemisphere so it is autumn season there. 

Q.3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions "an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the "glorious ... human achievement" he speaks of at the end?
Ans. The extraordinary human disaster was the practice of apartheid in South Africa. During apartheid regime there was racial segregation based on skin colour of people. Black people did not have proper constitutional rights. The end of apartheid regime and the beginning of a more tolerant society was the glorious human achievement. 

Q.4.What does Mandela thank the international  leaders for?
Ans. On that day most of the countries dignitaries were present to attend the swearing in ceremony. This was a gesture of international recognition to a newly born free nation. It is a common victory for justice, for peace and for human dignity. Nelson Mandela thanks them for this recognition.

Q.5. What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa?
Ans. Mandela set out the ideals of poverty alleviation, removal of suffering of people. He also set the ideal for a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.

 Q.6. What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?
Ans. Military generals salute Nelson Mandela, which is having its own importance as during apartheid era they would have arrested Mandela. The change in their attitude is because of struggle and sacrifices put in by many heroes of South Africa.

Q.7. Why were two national anthems sung?
Ans. There were two different national anthems in South Africa for the white and the black  Communities. The whites sang Nkosi Sikelel-iAfrika' and the blacks sang Die Stem.

Q.8. What does courage mean to Mandela?
Ans. For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.

Q.9. Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
Ans. He thinks that it is natural to love. Love comes naturally to human heart.

Q.10. Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why not? 
Ans. Mandela does not think that oppressor is free. Because, the oppressor is, the prisoner of hatred and prejudice.

Q.11. How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country 
(i) in the first decade, and 
(ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century? 
Ans. (i) In the first decade after the Anglo-Boer war it was the birth of an oppressive regime which created a system to deprive the black people of even basic human rights. The political system in South Africa was based on apartheid. That was a period of repression and racial discrimination. 
(ii) In the last decade of the twentieth century, there was a remarkable change. The old system was replaced with a system based on equality and freedom for all. mention?

Q.12. What "twin obligations" does Mandela MENTION?
Ans. Mandela also talks about twin obligations obligation to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children, and he has an obligation to his people, his community, and his country. He says that each one of us should fulfill these two obligations. He regrets that no one in South Africa could fulfill these obligations during the era of oppression. and as a student? How does he contrast these "transitory freedoms" with "the basic and honourable freedoms"?

Q.13. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these "transitory freedoms" with "the basic and honourable freedms?
Ans. Being free meant differently on the two occasions. As a boy, it meant to wander in the fields near his hut; to swim; to run through the village. But, as a student it meant to be free to stay out at night, to read what he pleased and to go where he chose However, these were the transitory freedoms'. The "basic and honourable freedoms" were the freedoms for the people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect. 

Q.14. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of? 
Ans. The presence of large number of international leaders was a gesture of solidarity from international community to the idea of the end of apartheid. It signified the triumph of good over evil, the triumph of the idea of a tolerant society without any discrimination.

Q.15. What does Mandela mean when he says he is "simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him?
Ans. Mandela means to say that he felt the urge of political independence of the country like the other African patriots. He has taken inspiration from them. Like them he also underwent difficulties and tortures in his struggle against slavery. Actually, Mandela is paying his tribute to the deceased freedom fighters of South Africa through these words.

Q.16. Would you agree that the depths of oppression" create "heights of character"? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?
Ans. It is true that depths of oppression create heights of character. The more a man suffers, the more determined he becomes to succeed. Mandela is the best example to prove this fact. He underwent decades of oppression and brutality. But these things only made him stronger and more determined. In India we have examples of leaders like Gandhiji. Veer Savarkar, Sardar Patel etc. Their sufferings only made them stronger to fight against the British. 

Q.17. How did Mandela's understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
Ans. Mandela's understanding of freedom certainly changed with age and experience. At first, he thought of personal freedom only. He wanted to be free to do whatever he liked and go wherever he liked. But with age and experience, he found that his countrymen were also not free. Now he understood the real meaning of freedom. It was the freedom for the people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect. He decided to fight for the freedom of his people also.

Q.18. How did Mandela's 'hunger for freedom' change his life?
Ans. Mandela's hunger for freedom changed his life and he decided to fight for freedom. He believed that freedom was his birth right. Now he worked day and night for it. He suffered greatly but his determination did not wave. He was made homeless. He was put into prison. But he remained steadfast to his resolution. Mandela's 'hunger for freedom' changed him into a great man, a statesman, and a visionary. He worked day and night for it. He underwent physical and mental tortures for obtaining freedom for his own people.

 Q.19. Who attended the freedom ceremony of South Africa?
Ans. The politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries of the world attended the freedom ceremony of South Africa.

Q.20. Why is Mandela unable to pay for the sacrifices of his people? 
Ans. Mandela regrets that he is unable to pay for the sacrifices of his people. In this struggle for freedom, thousands of South African fighters sacrificed their lives. They had to suffer a lot. But as a large number of those sufferers are not alive to see the glorious day of South Africa's freedom, Mandela is unable to pay for their sacrifices for the day. 

Q.21. What did Nelson Mandela pledge when he was sworn in as President?
Ans. Nelson Mandela pledged to obey and uphold the constitution while being sworn in as President. He also pledged to devote himself to the well-being of the republic and its people. 

Q.22. How does Mandela compare the oppressor with the oppressed? 
Ans. Both the oppressor and the oppressed need to be liberated, one from the chains of hatred and the other from the chains of the body. Therefore, there is not much difference between the oppressor and the oppressed.

Q.23. What harm has been caused by the policy of apartheid?
Ans. The policy of apartheid has caused an irreparable damage to the natives of South Africa. It created rift and spread the poison of hatred among the people. It has created a deep and lasting wound that the natives will take years to get rid of this wound. 

Q.24. Why does Mandela address the freedom as New born liberty'?
Ans. Mandela calls this freedom as 'New born liberty'. He does so because the people had to face a terrible disaster of racial hatred which lasted for a long time and claimed several lives. Now they are free from all those cruel things. So he calls this freedom as 'New born liberty'.

Q.25. What is Nelson Mandela's dream about the future of South Africa?
Ans. Nelson Mandela foresees a bright future of South Africa. He sees a country where there is no oppression and hopes that the country will progress further and it will never lose its freedom again. All the people will be free to do what they like. 

Q.26. What do you understand by the term "Apartheid'?

Ans. "Apartheid' refers to a discriminatory system existed in South Africa where the black-coloured people were deprived of freedom and they could not discharge their personal or social obligations.

Q.27. How did the policy of apartheid affect the people of South Africa?
Ans. The policy of apartheid had a great effect on the people of South Africa. The black coloured people faced loss of freedom and it created deep and lasting wounds on their souls. They suffered oppression and brutality for decades. This oppression produced many great men like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Yusuf Dadoo, Bram Fischer etc. who raised their voice against it and created a revolution.

Q.28. What is Nelson Mandela's remark about the country's wealth?
Ans. Nelson Mandela says that South Africa is rich both in physical wealth and human wealth. The country's soils abound in rich minerals and gems. Besides, the people of the country are the real wealth as they are finer and purer than the purest diamonds. Human wealth is the real wealth of the country.

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